ISSN 1016-1007 GPN2005600032
頁數:169﹣222 社群媒體的母職書寫:實踐、認同與治療 Motherhood Writing in Social Media: Practice, Identity, and Treatment
Jui Ting Chu
discourse analysis, intensive mothering, motherhood practice, netnography, writing treatment
  本研究透過網路民族誌法的觀察及論述分析後發現,密集 母職帶來高度緊繃的生活環境,讓女性的母職實踐走向難以喘息、也缺乏時間與空間的窒息狀態,生活經驗中所產生的厭煩、焦慮與自責,再加上現代對於「好媽媽」的期待,母親被迫進入「沒有選擇」的完美母職樣態。然而,透過母職文本的私我書寫,書寫者透過生命經驗的敘事分享,建構出自我認同並達到書寫治療的可能性,而使用者也透過社群媒體的留言互 動找到陪伴。
  Taiwan’s social structure has various established impressions of motherhood, and social media has made the form of motherhood writing different. In the past, writing about motherhood was mostly literary works, but in the Internet age, new platform types such as blogs and social media have begun to appear. These virtual communities established through social networks allow the construction of motherhood practice, and understanding the topic can produce more diverse functions and interpretations. At the same time, due to the self-media characteristics of social media, motherhood writing in the online field is able to reproduce the practice of motherhood, record the diachronicity of personal motherhood experience, and present the role of motherhood in social media on the axis of synchronicity. One can observe the dynamic experience of individual writing and can also use the interactive response of fan page messages to focus on and to try and construct the current appearance of motherhood practice in the field of the Internet.
  Nancy Chodorow (1978) and Hallstein (2006) analyzed how motherhood reproduction and intensive motherhood brought women greater oppression from social and cultural structure after the Industrial Revolution era. The second shift (Hochschild, 1989) and the discussion of good mothers (Perrier, 2012) have indirectly consolidated Taiwan’s gendered and market-oriented childcare system (Tang Wenhui, 2011), making the process of motherhood practice full of physical and emotional labor. In such a structure, various unfriendly environments lack real right to choose (Wei Jinghui, 2016).
  Through the observation and analysis of Internet ethnography, this study finds from the written texts in the field of the Internet that the current situation of motherhood in Taiwanese society is still dominated by intensive motherhood. The practical process of culturalization is still a dilemma that many mothers face. Intensive motherhood and emotional labor in traditional ideology, as well as the alienation of the father’s role, have become the main reasons for the increased pressure on motherhood. The concept of motherhood based on patriarchy makes it easy for mothers in a family to be controlled and unequal. Excessive requirements for women, mothers, and motherhood are the driving force behind the expansion of traditional ideology. Maternal love that co-exists with motherhood and the social inequality atmosphere and mother’s self-loss reflected in motherhood practice cause intensive motherhood to be a highly stressed living environment, making women’s motherhood practice difficult to breathe and creating a lack of time and a space state of suffocation. Due to the boredom, anxiety, and self-blame that mothers have experienced in life and coupled with modern expectations for good mothers, mothers under the external structure are forced to enter the state of perfect motherhood with no choice.
  These social cognitions with the image of a patriarchal society construct a set of oppressive intensive motherhood patterns through various speeches, words, and actions. For example, full-time mothers should be responsible for all the care responsibilities of children, elders put forward traditional or ideal parenting requirements, and there is alienation of the father’s role in parental relationships. These discussions are hidden in written texts and in social situations. After the process of contextualizing the discourse, it becomes a set of ideology centered on intensive motherhood, which consolidates the oppression and control of motherhood all the time.
  The field of writing about women and motherhood has shifted from the physical publication of books to writing platforms such as blogs or social media posted on the Internet. Through different forms of media representation and interpretation, more diverse and rich narrative presentations have begun to appear. Showing the process and thinking of motherhood practice, from life experience to culture and society, is an important core concept of motherhood writing. When social media becomes an outlet for media representation and interpretation, the writing of motherhood practice begins to present more diverse and rich narrative presentations and creates room for imagination in constructing identity. Writers construct self-identity from reflexive narratives, heal themselves through writing (Pennebaker, 1997; Li Guiyun, 2019), and even try to develop social activism. An online platform for discursive competence.
  Through the reappearance of writing actions, mothers find others who carry common life experiences and collective emotions. Writing texts not only becomes a way for writers to find themselves, but also allows other motherhood experiencers to experience “walking with me. The sense of companionship, those motherhood practices full of emotional labor, and the complex emotions of mothers’ love for their children intertwined with self- blame and boredom are all relieved in the texts and dialogues written in the field. Therefore, when mothers show their initiative through writing and interacting in the field on the Internet, they try to resist the motherhood discourse constructed by the patriarchal society, gain the right to speak out through the writing action, and develop the discourse ability to resist ideology. Even though van Dijk’s discourse analysis (Ni Yanyuan, 2013) reveals the oppressive matriarchal ideology in written texts, writing allows mothers to find the ideological space that “we” or “self-group” should retain in the discourse. The narrative text produced by the writing action of motherhood creates a social cognition constructed by different discrete knowledge in the discourse and becomes an effective social action, while the writing field of social media becomes the contextualization of the construction discourse and the optimum field for the process.
  A writer in this domain can describe the narrative of his or her own life experience in the writing field and construct the self-identity belonging to the writer. Under self-awareness, break away from the traditional ideology- intensive motherhood, and create a self-identified "self" in the self-narration. Self-identity is not unitary, and the direction of action developed by the writer through the personal initiative of the writing action will construct a different type in the virtual community consciousness, resulting in unknown social agency (Giddens, 1991).
  With the change of the times, the awareness of motherhood is gradually rising. Moreover, the state of contemporary motherhood is undergoing a slight change in the network field of social media, which still needs to be explored by those who are interested.
2023/ 夏