ISSN 1016-1007 GPN2005600032
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前期出版
頁數:207﹣250 臺灣原住民族電視新聞對氣候變遷的文化再現 Cultural Representation in Taiwan Indigenous Television’s News Reports on Climate Change
研究誌要
作者(中)
鄧宗聖
作者(英)
Tzong-Sheng Deng
關鍵詞(中)
文化再現、原住民族電視臺、原住民族傳統知識、氣候變遷、復原力
關鍵詞(英)
climate change, cultural representation, indigenous traditional knowledge, resilience, Taiwan Indigenous Television
中文摘要
本研究旨在探討在氣候變遷的議題下,原住民族電視臺產製之新聞如何再現原住民族的傳統知識?文獻回顧當代原住民族面臨文化衝擊、傳統知識恢復、復原力與反思氣候災難論述等,作為敘事分析的詮釋基礎。電視新聞取自IPCF-TITV頻道,研究者檢索2011-2021年間「氣候變遷」、「全球暖化」關鍵字,從83則新聞中比較相似主題並作敘事分析。研究發現,原住民族電視臺在文化議題常規下產製四類文化框架:(一)生態訊號框架,以在地的生態與常態連結的歲時祭儀、神話與民族植物的認識;(二)開放部落框架,無論是引領外界走進部落辦理研討、論壇、工作坊或是族人走出部落作策展,都認同傳統知識作為連結交流的媒介;(三)復原力關係框架,以部落生活空間為場域,將與海洋、土地連結的關係,凝聚族群在文化上動態的復原力;(四)跨文化他者框架,引介世界其他原住民族在傳統知識上的認同與國際行動。本文認為,原住民族傳統知識是複合型態並具相似性,在文化為主軸價值下,面對氣候變遷議題時,善用族群事件與傳統知識的交疊,能彰顯原住民族文化回應氣候變遷的主體性。
英文摘要
This study investigates how Taiwan Indigenous Television’s news represents indigenous people’s traditional knowledge, explains the relationship between climate events and indigenous cultures, and further explores the intention of cultural dissemination. The results herein can promote communication, education, and news content design in regards to the indigenous culture.

It first presents a literature review to examine the impact of climate change on indigenous culture, to clarify the concepts of and interactions between indigenous people’s traditional knowledge and resilience, and to evaluate their power relationships in their discourse on climate change. Discussions covering the influence of climate change on indigenous people has shifted focus from the tangible loss involved in climate change to the non-economic or spiritual aspects of influence. However, discourse on climate change has not appeared in the context of indigenous people’s traditional knowledge (e.g., local legends, rituals, and socioecological knowledge).

Traditional knowledge is qualitative-, subjective-, and experience-based and emphasizes contextualized micro-narratives of the locals as opposed to scientific knowledge, which can be explained through quantitative, empirical, rational, and predictable grand narratives. This does not negate the applicability of ethnic-, culture-, and spirit-centered traditional knowledge of an indigenous group to other indigenous groups; rather, intergroup exchanges occur, because of similar sociocultural and ecological conditions. The resilience and recovery processes of indigenous people are collective, and their traditional knowledge is tightly connected through their worldview of relationships. As news related to climate change transitions from scientifically-focused toward more socially- and culturally-focused content, the discourse on disaster management and environmental vulnerability has mainly responded to the dominant political, economic, cultural, and social groups as well as their values. Therefore, indigenous people’s cultural experiences are often overlooked.

This study conducts a narrative analysis by retrieving documents from the Taiwan Indigenous Television channel. It collects news reports from 2011 to 2021 by searching keywords such as “climate change” and “global warming.” Similarity analysis principles allows us to select climate events that affect indigenous people and have features distinct from others. By rereading and retelling, it analyzes texts for background, sources, routes, resources, perspectives, cultural identity, and members involved to explore the timing, purpose, meaning, and symbolism of representing indigenous people’s traditional knowledge.

In the text analysis, 82 news reports are selected and categorized under 4 cultural frameworks according to similarities of their content for the narrative analysis. The 4 frameworks are ecological signals, open indigenous tribes, resilient relationships, and intercultural others frameworks. The analysis results are as follows.

(1) The ecological signals framework represents “traditional normality.” Indigenous people regard ecological signals as critical cultural events. The presence of abnormal signals indicates that other activities will be affected and that corresponding actions are required. If the news audience lacks understanding of the cultural background and interpretation associated with the animals, plants, and the environment mentioned in news, they may fail to develop a deeper cultural understanding (e.g., of rituals and myths).
(2) The open tribes framework connects the identities of indigenous peoples. Discussions on climate change involve an examination of one another’s tribal cultures (e.g., in seminars, forums, workshops, and award ceremonies). The open tribes framework produces understanding and value recognition and introduces traditional knowledge to the outside world. The audience’s lack of exchange with and understanding of other indigenous tribes and its unawareness of the actions taken by other tribes may impose challenges in that the audience may interpret the news content through their local context (e.g., the elders, memories, and myths of their own tribes).
(3) The resilient relationships framework focuses on events related to relational ethics. Narratives revolve around the living space of tribes (e.g., fishing, construction, crop farming, and livestock farming). The study examines existing resilient relationships in a meaningful environment to obtain knowledge for generating dynamic resilience. The resilient relationships framework provides a dynamic interpretation of indigenous people’s resilience through both traditional and modern knowledge.
(4) The intercultural others framework explains how indigenous peoples worldwide share their traditional knowledge, fight for their cultural rights in protection of their tight relationships with nature and the land, respond to interactions between the continuation of traditional knowledge and external forces (e.g., globalization, business markets, and systemic environmental threats), and handle the power relationships involved in the interactions. This framework emphasizes the connection of cultural actions taken by indigenous people around the world in response to climate change.

The resilient actions of indigenous people maintain the unique cultural boundaries of tribes in which similar beliefs and values are shared with changes to the traditional territorial behavior. Traditions are continued to retain tribal identity and accentuate the inclusivity of tribal culture. The news produced by Taiwan Indigenous Television is typically based on cultural topics, and the narratives closely relate to the traditional knowledge of indigenous people. Although a single piece of news cannot present the entire picture of Taiwan’s indigenous peoples, their traditional knowledge may be scattered across various news texts.

In the overall cultural context, indices can be created to connect related news texts to reveal how an event is culturally unique to each indigenous group. These texts could be utilized as materials for cultural dissemination, education, and design (e.g., art creations and development of teaching materials), which can shape and mediatize the indigenous knowledge system for various purposes. Taiwan Indigenous Television demonstrates the diversity of media culture in climate change topics. The production of indigenous people’s traditional knowledge is not limited to compiling ancient texts, as it provides a basis for reflecting how cultural texts are produced in other media.
Building upon the narratives under the 4 frameworks, indigenous people and reporters can, with both of them being a subject of the narrative, collaborate to produce and apply traditional knowledge as they situate themselves in the present while looking back on ancient memories. By asking themselves whose traditional knowledge they are discussing, they can produce in-depth experimental narratives that are relevant to resilience and culturally responsive to climate change (or sustainability).
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