ISSN 1016-1007 GPN2005600032
前期出版
前期出版
頁數:53﹣95 中國大陸女性社交直播主的數位勞動與性別政治 The Digital Labor and Gender Politics of Female Social Live Streamers in China
專題論文
作者(中)
林怡潔、單蔓婷
作者(英)
Yi-Chieh Jessica Lin, Man-Ting Shan
關鍵詞(中)
中國大陸、平臺資本主義、性別、直播、展演、數位勞動
關鍵詞(英)
China, digital labor, gender, live streaming, performativity, platform capitalism
中文摘要
過去數年間,社交(秀場)直播在中國大陸直播市場中迅速崛起,直播主以女性居多,強調性化自拍的影像產製,直播內容包含聊天、唱歌、跳舞等形式,透過觀眾打賞、虛擬禮物、會員費用及網路廣告獲得收益,形成年數百億人民幣產值之商業規模。本研究探討中國大陸的社會文化脈絡中,女性社交直播主的動機與數位勞動過程,並分析社交直播主如何藉由經紀中介與平臺的指導,建構線上性別表演與自我品牌,進行細緻的情感與情緒勞動及迷群管理,最終將累積的社會資本變現。本研究透過網路民族誌及半結構式深度訪談,除分析女性直播主的數位勞動策略,也關注女性直播主的數位勞動經驗究竟是否帶來賦權,並與後女性主義理論進行對話。研究資料發現,中國大陸的女性社交直播主多有意識地操弄陰柔氣質進行性別表演,直播主獲得賦權的方式包括在表演中獲得自信、社會支持、實現夢想以及累積經濟資本等。但由於直播平臺強調即時互動,並給予觀眾更多參與文化生產權力的特性,使得女性直播主也必須應對不少性別歧視、性騷擾或性侮辱言論,而需要採取各種保護自我的策略。
英文摘要
Social live streaming services have recently expanded rapidly in China and acquired a large viewing segment in the country’s market for such services. The majority of so-called broadcasters are women, who emphasize the sexualization of the self and offer services such as chatting, singing, and dancing in exchange for remuneration through virtual gifts, membership fees, and Internet advertising. Based on semi-structured interviews and Internet ethnography, this study examines the motivation and labor processes of female social live streaming broadcasters in China. The study initially delineates how the broadcasters navigate through this new media environment, conduct gendered performances, develop personal brands, and manage the social network of fans with the assistance of their agencies and live streaming platforms staffs. We then show how the broadcasters meticulously carry out affective labor and emotional labor in their gendered performances in order to convert relational labor into economic capital. The paper next engages in a dialogue with studies of post-feminist media culture to discuss whether or not the technology of social live streaming services actually empowers female broadcasters. The broadcasters not only actively manipulate their femininity in exchange for the attention and support of male fans but also accumulate social support and economic capital. Although the format of social live streaming allows for more participation from the audience, the research data present that this particular mechanism also exposes female live broadcasters to gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Therefore, due to this environment female broadcasters have limited autonomy over the content of their gendered performances. Finally, this paper discusses how the female broadcasters in this study adopt different strategies to protect their privacy and safety.
2021/ 冬
No.146
X

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