頁數：53﹣95 中國大陸女性社交直播主的數位勞動與性別政治 The Digital Labor and Gender Politics of Female Social Live Streamers in China
Yi-Chieh Jessica Lin, Man-Ting Shan
China, digital labor, gender, live streaming, performativity, platform capitalism
Social live streaming services have recently expanded rapidly in China and acquired a large viewing segment in the country’s market for such services. The majority of so-called broadcasters are women, who emphasize the sexualization of the self and offer services such as chatting, singing, and dancing in exchange for remuneration through virtual gifts, membership fees, and Internet advertising. Based on semi-structured interviews and Internet ethnography, this study examines the motivation and labor processes of female social live streaming broadcasters in China. The study initially delineates how the broadcasters navigate through this new media environment, conduct gendered performances, develop personal brands, and manage the social network of fans with the assistance of their agencies and live streaming platforms staffs. We then show how the broadcasters meticulously carry out affective labor and emotional labor in their gendered performances in order to convert relational labor into economic capital. The paper next engages in a dialogue with studies of post-feminist media culture to discuss whether or not the technology of social live streaming services actually empowers female broadcasters. The broadcasters not only actively manipulate their femininity in exchange for the attention and support of male fans but also accumulate social support and economic capital. Although the format of social live streaming allows for more participation from the audience, the research data present that this particular mechanism also exposes female live broadcasters to gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Therefore, due to this environment female broadcasters have limited autonomy over the content of their gendered performances. Finally, this paper discusses how the female broadcasters in this study adopt different strategies to protect their privacy and safety.