頁數：49﹣96 自新聞業出走的抉擇：數位時代的記者離職歷程研究 Decision-making Process in Quitting Journalism - A Study on the Resignation of Journalists in the Digital Era
burnout, image violation, shock event, voluntary turnover
人才，是新聞業的根本，記者自新聞業出走將影響經驗承傳及新聞品質。本研究修改自願離職展開模式（unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover），深度訪談二十位自 2013 年以後離開新聞界的報紙與電視記者，了解其離職的決策歷程。研究發現：數位工作環境下帶來的倦怠，及對專業角色衝突引發「心象受阻」，是記者啟動離職意念的主要因素。「心象受阻」乃個人在工作上無法達成自我價值、目標與策略，與其產生衝突的狀態，它成為記者離職意念啟動的重要「鑰匙」，並在離職歷程中成為個人內在反思的動力。個人從啟動意念到決定離職的時間長短不一，其間都歷經推力與拉力的拔河，熱愛新聞、沒有專長的憂慮及經濟負擔為阻礙辭職因素，但記者社會地位不如以往、工作沒有安全感及薪水成長有限卻是促成離職的主要因素。本研究進一步發現，個人最後採取辭職行動之前均歷經衝擊事件影響，此衝擊事件大多與組織數位政策執行、主管領導風格有關。過去自願離職展開模式認為衝擊事件是引發離職意念的重要因素，本研究發現，在記者離職過程中，衝擊事件的作用時機不一定在初期，在最後決策階段乃扮演加速器，將記者推向新聞業之外。
In order to explore the decision-making process of journalists when quitting their journalistic job, 20 newspaper and TV journalists who left the press industry after 2013 were interviewed based on the unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. This study shows that the main factors spurring reporters to consider quitting are burnout triggered by digital working conditions and the image violation caused by conflicts between different professional roles. The term “image violation” refers to the conflicting mental status triggered by one’s inability to achieve personal value, goal and strategy at work, and also takes on the role of helping journalists to introspectively examine themselves during the process of making a final decision. According to the data collected, the total time spent from the preliminary idea of quitting to actually making the decision to quit varies. All the research objects experienced push and pull factors in their minds during this period. Their enthusiasm for journalism, concern over a lack of expertise, and financial burden were the major obstacles to resignation. The social status of journalists not being as respectable as before, job insecurity, and limited salary growth were the motives for leaving a journalistic job. Before the final decision was made, this study also finds that everyone encountered a certain type of shock event and the digital policies and leadership at the media firm for which they worked were two examples that most of the research objects were ever faced with. The findings hence support the assumption of the unfolding model that asserts a shock event is an important factor stimulating one’s attempt to quit a job. This research further suggests that the impact of a shock event on decision-making does not necessarily occur in the early stage of the whole process. It does, however, seem to play a significant role in accelerating journalists’ determination to part with the industry of journalism.