ISSN 1016-1007 GPN2005600032
頁數:141﹣194 唯有腐女愛耽美?中國腐男喜好本土電視劇中腐向CP的動機研究 Do Only Fujoshi Enjoy Tanbi? A Study of Chinese Fudanshi’s Motivations for Liking Tanbi CP in Domestic TV Series
Guang-Quan Zheng, Ya-Ching Lee
Fudanshi, Identity, Masculinities, Pleasure, Tanbi CP
Among all sorts of CP (couple) in Chinese TV series, Tanbi CP are sweeping across audiences, including a male audience known as “fudanshi”. While previous studies mainly focus on fujoshi who are also obsessed with Tanbi CP, studies on fudanshi are scarce, and some, despite references to this subject, encounter problems like an insufficient empirical study (Xu & Yang, 2014) and small sample size (Zhang, 2013). Recent years have witnessed the efforts of both Eastern and Western academic circles to probe into Tanbi enthusiasts from the perspective of fans (Yang & Liu, 2012; Zhu & Zhao, 2015; Tanaka & Ishida, 2018; Zhao & Madill, 2018). In light of the fan culture theory, pleasure and identity are viewers’ two main motivations (Grossberg, 1992; Jian, 1996).

Despite their inquiry into motivations, previous studies have barely touched upon Tanbi enthusiasts, only describing the characteristics of this group - namely, their mania for Tanbi. Some studies addressing this aspect have merely explored the pleasant feelings (Lin, 2011) or solely probed into the sense of identity (Zhang, 2016; Zhang, 2018). Furthermore, in some studies centering around other fans, the varying degrees of fandom have been proved to either strengthen or weaken some motivations (Lin, 2011; Wu, Zhang, Zhang & Chen, 2015; Lin, 2018). On that account, there are few discussions about fudanshi, for which analysis of the motivation behind this group is insufficient.
In view of such a gap and based on the fan culture theory, this study conducts analysis within the framework of pleasure and identity on the psychological level in an effort to shed light on the motivation behind Chinese fudanshi’s preference for Tanbi CP in domestic TV series as well as the motivation changes caused by varying degrees of fandom. This study collects data by means of semi-structured in-depth interviews. In terms of respondents, males who have a fondness for at least one pair of Tanbi CP in a TV series are selected. Only Chinese respondents are selected, so as to prevent deviations caused by different social systems and cultural customs in different regions.
The findings reveal that fudanshi’s preferences for Tanbi CP in domestic TV series are motivated by pleasure and identity. The former involves achieving aesthetic pleasure, emotional pleasure, and resistant pleasure. First of all, in terms of aesthetic pleasure, fudanshi hold different aesthetic criteria regarding tops and bottoms. They still prefer tops that represent masculinities, while bottoms are endowed with femininities due to the preconceived notion that “tops are masculine and bottoms are feminine”. Moreover, fudanshi are pressed by gender identity, relationship, family, and career, and Tanbi CP have become an ideal pattern for them to break the chain of realistic regrets, further motivating them to achieve emotional pleasure. Finally, resistant pleasure is also derived from fudanshi’s discontent with the status quo, which presents a more intense sense of resistance. Compulsory heterosexuality featuring “dominant male and obedient female” is perceived as overly rigid, and the official attitude towards homosexuality and related matters is perceived as conservative.

Through the findings, a pleasant sense can be achieved by reinterpreting and resisting official discourse and values within the original heterosexual context. Identity involves two different levels: individual and social. Individually, fudanshi, by means of Tanbi CP, accept their own or others’ masculinities, and fudanshi with femininities gradually identify with them, while fudanshi who originally admire masculinities are willing to accept femininities in males. Socially, they recognize the values of fudanshi identity, which signifies males’ voluntary challenge of the existing hegemony masculinities, and such a move is progressive to some degree.

This study also reveals that resistant pleasure will be boosted with a deepening degree of fandom, which not only intensifies their identity with fudanshi, but also helps them appreciate the progressive value behind such identity and view it as a symbol of breaking the shackles of the existing hegemony masculinities. Moreover, they attempt to infuse different personalities and dispositions in Tanbi CP and gradually dissolve their obsession with masculinities, thereby identifying themselves with the rationality of having non-hegemony masculinities.

In conclusion, this study reveals that despite fudanshi’s preference for Tanbi CP, the influence of traditional gender norms on fudanshi is so profound that they are still shackled by the existing hegemony masculinities reflected at both internal and external levels. However, the advent of Tanbi puts rebellious seeds in their mind, which will trigger resistant awareness when the time is ripe. For some males who are unaware of their long-term submission to gender oppression in the patriarchal system, their preference for Tanbi CP spurs them to contemplate the rationality of the existing hegemony masculinities, making it possible for both genders to jointly resist patriarchal oppression, which bespeaks the most valuable and vigorous aspect of such a Tanbi cultural phenomenon in the contemporary era.
2022/ 秋