ISSN 1016-1007 GPN2005600032
頁數:113-154﹣113-154 權力非對稱分配下的路徑依賴: 伊朗三部《新聞法》的淵源、形塑與 歷史流變(1979-2019) Path Dependence in the Asymmetrical Distribution of Power: The Origins, Modulation, and Historical Evolution of Three Press Laws in Iran
Mengshan Ren, Chengye Li
Islamic Republic of Iran, Khomeinism, Press Law
From the establishment of Khomeini’s regime in 1979 to the present, Iran’s Press Law has followed the political climate in the Islamic Republic, featuring a clear “path dependence”. The logical beginning of the changing regulatory regime of the Iranian press can be traced back to the importation of modern newspapers and magazines into Iran in recent times. In contrast to the mosque, mass media are not as accessible to traditional society and religious figures. Through the “institutional breaking point” of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, this historical entanglement evolved into an asymmetrical distribution of power in the initial set-up of Iran’s press regulatory system. Through the 1979 version of the Press Law and the Constitution, the press was placed under the “tutelage” of religious conservatives. This asymmetry was further reinforced by subsequent versions of the Press Law from 1979 to 1989, highlighted by the 1986 version of the Press Law that significantly increased the power of religious conservatives to regulate the press. After the death of Ruhollah Khomeini, the two Presidents Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and Mohammed Khatami wanted to unbundle the press with reforms, which led to a conservative backlash and an awkward situation of “one step forward, two steps back further”. After 2005, although new media technologies overwhelmed the hard-line government, they were no match for the “neo-Khomeinist” Nejad’s strong measures to regulate the press. In 2003, the new President Hassan Rouhani’s course deviated from the radical policies of his predecessors, as he looked to strike a balance between the expectations of the reformists and the hammering of conservatives. In the end, the basic framework of Iran’s press regulation continues to be as solid as a rock.
2021/ 秋