頁數：151﹣179 「理想」與「烏托邦」：成舍我新聞教育理念與實踐論析 “Ideal” and “Utopia”: On Cheng Shewo’s Idea of Journalism Education and Its Practice
Li Shixin, Liu Mengxi
combined use of hands and brains, division of labor, labor conflict, Peiping College of Journalism
The low popularity of Chinese newspapers, labor conflicts, and the contradiction between mental labor and physical labor were the main problems of modern Chinese press. By establishing the Peiping College of Journalism, Cheng Shewo wanted to train students to become professionals who could engage in both mental labor and physical labor. In this way, if the employees were able to play overlapping roles and share all the work across different departments, then contradictions between them would be easily solved. Newspapers run under labor cooperation could help with the development of this form of media and continue to promote their popularization. However, Cheng Shewo did not realize that the contradiction between mental labor and physical labor was mainly caused by the limitation of division of labor. Artificially breaking the segregation of the two different forms of labor violated the objective law of the development of division of labor, but at the same time created a new contradiction—that was, labor conflicts. Cheng Shewo’s educational idea of the “combined use of hands and brains”, as he stated, did not provide a satisfactory solution, as it was only “a Utopian attempt”, except for its ability to expand the knowledge and printing skills of students. Cheng Shewo’s idea of “newspaper sovereignty sharing” was also closely related to his idea of “combined use of hands and brains” and furthermore treated the chronic problem of the Chinese press. In fact, the idea of “newspaper sovereignty sharing”, which aimed to alleviate labor conflicts, was to abolish the division of labor between management and execution. This was inconsistent with Cheng Shewo’s actual identities of the owner and manager of his newspapers and thus could not be implemented.