ISSN 1016-1007 GPN2005600032
欠缺模式下的科普出版「傳奇」: 析論 1980 年代臺灣科普套書之傳播策略及其知識觀 “Deficit model” in the “legend” of popular science publication: Analysis of the communication strategy and science knowledge of popular science books in 1980s Taiwan
Yao-Jen Chang
Communication Strategy, Deficit Model, Narrative Communication, Popular Science, Popular Science Book, Science Communication
本研究在陳瑞麟(2018)論述啟發下,檢視 1980 年代臺灣科普套書如何傳播科學知識,以及傳播何種科學知識?經由場域分析、深度訪談以及文本分析,研究發現:
一、就科普套書出版場域而言:(1) 強調硬殼裝幀、圖片彩印的精裝科普套書蔚為風潮,經由直銷通路屢屢創下日入百萬的「銷售傳奇」。(2) 多翻譯自日本而非歐美科普書,且訴諸學生族群,視科普套書為制式教育之延伸。
二、就科普套書傳播策略而言:(1) 出版社主張科學知識必須正確,聘請科學家擔任科普套書審訂委員,形成由上而下的指導關係。(2) 因訴諸學生族群,故參照教科書章節編排內容,並編製親師手冊以引導親子共學。(3) 經由人際溝通的直銷通路造就「銷售傳奇」。
三、就科普套書傳播之科學知識觀而言:(1) 參照國、高中自然科教科書內容編排主題,箇中以「生命的起源」、「物種起源/演化論」、「地球的誕生」為主。(2) 科普套書敘事筆觸與教科書相近,但較口語化與簡化。(3) 科學知識視覺化蔚為風潮,固然具象化科學觀點,卻也因為欠缺科學文化觀點,僅是再次強化科學權威的糖衣。
Inspired by the argument of Chen Ruey-Lin (2018), this research examines how and what kind of scientific knowledge was spread in Taiwan’s popular science books in the 1980s. Through field analysis, in-depth interviews, and text analysis, the study presents the following findings. (1) Hardcover popular science books that emphasize hard-shell binding and color printing of pictures have become a trend, and through direct sales channels they have repeatedly created “sales legends” of NT$1 millions of dollars a day. (2) Most popular science books are translated from Japan’s version rather than from those of Europe and the United States and appeal to children and students, making them an extension of science education. (3) The interdisciplinary integration model of cooperation between the publishing industry and scientists has been valued by the latter and aims to advocate that scientific knowledge must be correct. (4) The industry has relied on the selection of articles and related edited chapters of the college entrance system, compiling a parent-teacher manual to guide parent-child learning together. (4) Direct sales channels through interpersonal communication have created “sales legends”. (5) Relevant themes are arranged in accordance with the content of the natural science textbooks of the country and high school, as well as “the origin of life”, “the origin of species/evolution theory”, and “the birth of earth”. (6) The narrative strokes of popular science books are similar to textbooks, but more colloquial and simplified. (7) Scientific knowledge visualization has become a trend, not only through concrete scientific viewpoints, but also because of a lack of science cultural viewpoints, which is the only sugar coating that once again strengthens the authority of science.