頁數:79﹣120
國族主義的娛樂化與經濟邏輯: 台灣媒體運動報導中「仇韓」與「仇中」言論的演變
The Cultural/Economic Logic of “Festival Nationalism”: An Analysis of “Anti-Korea” & “Anti-China” Discourses in Taiwanese Media Reports on Sports
2015/
122
作者(中) 劉昌德
作者(英) Chang-De Liu
關鍵詞(中) 反韓、反中、全球化、節慶國族主義、運動、楊淑君事件
關鍵詞(英) anti-China sentiments, anti-Korea sentiments, globalization, festival nationalism, sports, Yang Shu-Chun incident
中文摘要 國族主義不但要發明自身傳統以凝聚共同體想像,也須建構「共同敵人」以區辨我群與他者。本研究以量化內容分析與質化論述分析,檢驗自1980年代以來的運動衝突事件中,台灣媒體對主要競爭對象韓國與中國的國族主義報導。相較1980與1990年代,在全球化下台灣經濟競爭落居劣勢的2000年代,國族仇恨言論數量顯著增加;而長期以來對經濟對手韓國的仇恨言論數量較政治對手中國多,直到2000年代中國經濟崛起後,仇中言論數量才上揚。相較傳統國族主義,全球化下國族主義論述朝向「去政治化」與「娛樂化」,主題與消息來源從政治轉向娛樂,內容也從官方主控的政治言論轉為一般民眾與藝人的情緒展演。此種娛樂化的國族主義表現集中在仇韓言論,應是受區域經濟與娛樂產業競爭關係的影響。本研究說明了經濟因素長期以來影響運動國族主義建構,而全球化下的文化經濟力量更重塑了媒體國族論述的再現方式。
英文摘要 For making an “imagined community,” the nationalist not only invents the concepts of “us” or “our traditions” to maintain national identity but also constructs the images of “others” or “our enemies” to differentiate them from us. In Taiwan, the major “enemies” are Korea and China, two neighbor countries having close relationship with Taiwan in politics, economy, and culture fields. By both quantitative content analysis and qualitative discourse analysis of the media reports on related sport events since the 1980s, this paper examines the development and characteristics of “anti-Korea” and “anti-China” discourse. First, the amounts of both anti-Korea and anti-China discourse have increased in the globalization era of 2000s in which Taiwanese economy became in relative disadvantage to Korea and China. Moreover, the number of anti-Korea discourses is obviously more than that of anti-China through the 1980s to 2000s, while the later has increased in the 2000s as the Chinese economy grew rapidly. Second, these nationalist discourses have been transformed from “politic speech” under the governmental control in the 1980s and 1990s, to a “non-politic/entertaining sentimental performances” by ordinary people and celebrities or artists in the entertainment industry in the 2000s. Third, the so-called “festival nationalism” on Taiwanese media nationalism discourse in the globalization era mainly concentrated on anti-Korea sentiment reports, which was resulted from the competitions of the national economy and the entertainment industry among the three East Asian countries. This paper, thus, illustrates how sporting nationalism have been influenced by the economic competitions, and also demonstrates the transformation and re-construction of nationalism by the cultural economy, rather than built by political power, in the globalization age.
 
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