頁數:167﹣196
冷戰時期國際人權典章中的新聞自由
Freedom of the Press in International Human Rights Instruments in the Cold War Era
2014/
120
作者(中) 楊秀菁
作者(英) Hsiu-Chin Yang
關鍵詞(中) 公民與政治權利國際公約、世界人權宣言、美洲人權公約、新聞自由、歐洲人權公約
關鍵詞(英) Freedom of the press, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, American Convention on Human Rights
中文摘要 本文嘗試從〈世界人權宣言〉、〈公民與政治權利國際公約〉、〈歐洲人權公約〉,以及〈美洲人權公約〉等四部知名的人權典章著手,探究「新聞自由」保障內涵的轉變。原則上,〈世界人權宣言〉第19條對表現自由的保障已成為新聞自由的基本內涵,但世界各國對於是否賦予該條文所保障的積極權利──「尋求」──卻存有許多歧見。〈世界人權宣言〉僅言「不受干預」的權利,在歐美國家則更加重視不受政府或公部門干預的權利。整體觀之,這些人權典章基本上傾向第一代人權保障模式,亦即保障人民免於國家權力侵害。但其立下的權利內涵「尋求」、「接受」與「傳播」本身即帶有積極意義,賦予國家積極介入,確保新聞媒體多元發展的可能性。
英文摘要 This paper discusses the content and development of freedom of the press in international human rights instruments. This study concluded that Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (“everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers”) is the foundation of other instruments. However, the rights to “active inquiry” (“to seek”) are inconsistently specified. Compared with others, European and American conventions are more concerned with freedom from interference by public authorities. In general, such conventions obviate the regulation of expression and restrict the methods and means that can be used by governments to control the media.
 
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